Monday, 24 February 2014


Cangrelor, AR-C69931MX Shows Improvement Over Plavix in Phase III Trial

Cangrelor, AR-C69931MX
[dichloro-[[[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-[6-(2-methylsulfanylethylamino)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropylsulfanyl)purin-9-yl]oxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxyphosphoryl]oxy-hydroxyphosphoryl]methyl]phosphonic acid
N-[2-(Methylthio)ethyl]-2-[(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)thio]-5¢-adenylic acid monoanhydride with (dichloromethylene)bis[phosphonic acid]
163706-06-7 cas no
Also known as: AR-C69931XX, 163706-06-7, Cangrelor (USAN/INN), Cangrelor [USAN:INN:BAN], UNII-6AQ1Y404U7, cangrelor (AR-C69931MX),
Molecular Formula: C17H25Cl2F3N5O12P3S2
Molecular Weight: 776.359196
MAR 09, 2013
The Medicines Company said yesterday it will pursue marketing approvals for its anti-clotting drug candidate Cangrelor after it met its primary efficacy endpoint in a Phase III clinical trial of improvement compared with Plavix (clopidogrel).
The intravenous small molecule antiplatelet agent reduced by 22% the likelihood of patients experiencing death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis within 48 hours of taking it—to 4.7% from 5.9% of subjects randomized during CHAMPION PHOENIX. The Phase III trial compared Cangrelor to oral Plavix in 11,145 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
Cangrelor also showed a 38% reduction (0.8% compared with 1.4%) over Plavix in the likelihood of patients experiencing the key secondary endpoint, incidence of stent thrombosis at 48 hours.
Cangrelor is designed to prevent platelet activation and aggregation that leads to thrombosis in acute care settings, including in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. During CHAMPION PHOENIX, Cangrelor made its best showing in patients with Q-wave myocardial infarction (QMI), lowering by 39% (to 0.2% compared with 0.3%) the incidence of QMI. Cangelor’s most disappoint showing was its inability to lower the odds of death compared with Clopidogrel; both drugs showed a likelihood of 0.3%.
“Our next step is to submit for market approvals in the U.S. and Europe. We anticipate submitting these data for a new drug application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in the second quarter with findings of prior trials, including the BRIDGE trial in patients awaiting open heart surgery,” Simona Skerjanec, PharmD, senior vp and innovation leader for antiplatelet therapies at The Medicines Company, said in a statement.
Cangrelor is a P2Y12 inhibitor under investigation as an antiplatelet drug[1] for intravenous application. Some P2Y12 inhibitors are used clinically as effective inhibitors of adenosine diphosphate-mediated platelet activation and aggregation.[1] Unlike clopidogrel (Plavix), which is a prodrug, cangrelor is an active drug not requiring metabolic conversion.
Poor interim results led to the abandonment of the two CHAMPION clinical trials in mid 2009.[2] The BRIDGE study, for short term use prior to surgery, continues.[3] The CHAMPION PHOENIX trial was a randomized study of over 11,000 patients published in 2013. It found usefulness of cangrelor in patients getting cardiac stents. Compared with clopidogrel given around the time of stenting, intravenous ADP-receptor blockade with cangrelor significantly reduced the rate of stent thrombosis and myocardial infarction.[4]Reviewers have questioned the methodology of the trial.[5]
One particularly preferred example of a reversible, short-acting P2Y12 inhibitor is cangrelor. Cangrelor is a potent, direct, and reversible antagonist of the platelet P2Y12 receptor. Cangrelor has a half-life of approximately less than 10 minutes, allowing for a return to normal platelet function in a very short period of time upon discontinuation of the drug. By reducing the need for a compound to be metabolized for activity, and by having a relatively short half-life, reversible, short-acting P2Y12 inhibitors are considered “reversible,” meaning that full platelet functionality may return rather quickly as compared to thienopyridines.
The binding of cangrelor to the P2Y12 receptor inhibits platelet activation as well as aggregation when mediated in whole or in part via this receptor. Cangrelor can be derived completely from synthetic materials, and is an analogue of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a natural antagonist of the P2Y12 receptor sites and is found in humans.
The chemical structure for cangrelor is depicted below as Formula I.
Figure US20130303477A1-20131114-C00001
Cangrelor is clinically well tolerated and safe and has no drug-drug interaction with aspirin, heparin or nitroglycerin. Unlike orally dosed thienopyridines, cangrelor can be administered intravenously and binds directly to P2Y12 receptor sites of platelets. In each of the embodiments of the present invention, the term “cangrelor” encompasses the compound of Formula I as well as tautomeric, enantiomeric and diastereomeric forms thereof, and racemic mixtures thereof, other chemically active forms thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts of these compounds, including a tetrasodium salt. These alternative forms and salts, processes for their production, and pharmaceutical compositions comprising them, are well known in the art and set forth, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 5,721,219. Additional disclosure relevant to the production and use of cangrelor may be found in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,955,447, 6,130,208 and 6,114,313, as well as in U.S. Appln. Publication Nos. 2006/0270607 and 2011/0112030.
Invasive procedures means any technique where entry to a body cavity is required or where the normal function of the body is in some way interrupted by a medical procedure and/or treatment that invades (enters) the body, usually by cutting or puncturing the skin and/or by inserting instruments into the body. Invasive procedures can include coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), orthopedic surgeries, urological surgeries, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), other general invasive procedures, such as endarterectomy, renal dialysis, cardio-pulmonary bypass, endoscopic procedures or any medical, surgical, or dental procedure that could result in excessive bleeding or hemorrhage to the patient.
Perioperative means the period of a patient’s invasive procedure which can occur in hospitals, surgical centers or health care providers’ offices. Perioperative includes admission, anesthesia, surgery, to recovery.
Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel is injured, the body uses platelets and fibrin to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss. Some examples of the types of thrombosis include venous thrombosis which includes deep vein thrombosis, portal vein thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, jugular vein thrombosis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, Paget-Schroetter disease, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and arterial thrombosis which includes stroke and myocardial infarction.
The compound cangrelor from the Medicines Company is represented by the structure
Figure imgf000013_0002
Cangrelor sodium, AR-C69931MX
Cangrelor Tetrasodium [USAN]
RN: 163706-36-3
Platelet P(2T) receptor antagonist.
5′-O-[[[Dichloro(phosphono)methyl](hydroxy)phosphoryloxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl]-N-[2-(methylsulfanyl)ethyl]-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropylsulfanyl)adenosine tetrasodium salt
The Medicines Co. (Proprietary), AstraZeneca Charnwood (Originator)
CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS, Treatment of Disorders of the Coronary Arteries and Atherosclerosis, P2Y12 (P2T) Antagonists
2-Mercaptoadenosine (I) was S-alkylated with 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropane (II) in the presence of NaH to give trifluoropropyl sulfide (III). Subsequent acetylation of (III) with Ac2O at 80 C provided (IV), which was N-alkylated with methylthioethyl iodide (V) and NaH yielding (VI).
Further hydrolysis of the resulting (VI) with 0.1 M NaOH in refluxing MeOH furnished adenosine derivative (VII). The 5′-hydroxyl group of (VII) was then phosphorylated by reaction with phosphoryl chloride in cold triethyl phosphate followed by aqueous work-up.
The resulting 5′-monophosphate (VIII) was treated with carbonyl diimidazole and tri-n-butylamine to produce the phosphoryl imidazole intermediate (IX), which was finally condensed with dichloromethylenebis(phosphonic acid) (X).
The target compound was isolated as the tetrasodium salt upon treatment with NaI in methanol-acetone.
Alkylation of mercaptopurine (I) with 3-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoropropane (II) in the presence of NaH gave thioether (III).
After protection of the amino group of (III) as the acetamide (IV) by means of Ac2O and NaOAc, N-alkylation with 2-(methylthio)ethyl iodide (V) yielded (VI),
which was deacetylated by hydrolysis with NaOH in refluxing MeOH. Subsequent treatment with POCl3 produced the intermediate phosphoryl chloride (VIII).
Then, condensation of this acid chloride with dichloromethylene bisphosphonic acid (IX) in the presence of tributylamine in triethyl phosphate yielded the title compound, which was isolated as the tetrasodium salt.
Alternatively, hydrolysis of acid chloride (VIII) in the presence of ammonium bicarbonate gave phosphate salt (X), which was treated with carbonyldiimidazole, and the activated intermediate (XI) was then condensed with bisphosphonate (IX) to furnish the target compound.


J. Med. Chem., 1999, 42 (2), pp 213–220
10l (AR-C69931MX)
N6-(2-Methylthioethyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropylthio)-5-adenylic Acid, Monoanhydride withDichloromethylenebis(phosphonic acid) (10l)Prepared as the triammonium salt in 4% yield from 3l:  1H NMR δ(D2O) 8.30 (1H, s, H8), 5.97 (1H, d, J = 5.5 Hz, H1‘), 4.65 (1H, m, H2‘), 4.47 (1H, m, H3‘), 4.28 (1H, m, H4‘), 4.17 (2H, m, H5‘a and H5‘b), 3.67 (br s, NHCH2), 3.21 (2H, t, J = 7.6 Hz, SCH2), 2.72 (2H, t, J = 6.6 Hz, SCH2CH2CF3), 2.58 (2H, m, NCH2CH2), 2.04 (3H, s, SCH3);31P NMR δ(D2O) 8.80 (d, 1P, J = 18.6 Hz, Pγ), 0.42 (dd, 1P, J1 = 18.9 Hz, J2 = 28.9 Hz, Pβ), −9.41 (d, 1P, J = 29.0 Hz, Pα). Anal. (C17H34Cl2F3N8O12P3S2·3H2O) H, N, S; C:  calcd, 23.16; found, 23.66.


  1.  Cangrelor Attenuates Coated-Platelet Formation
  2.  CHAMPION Trials With Cangrelor Stopped for Lack of Efficacy
  3. What Cangrelor Failure Means to Medicines
  4.  Effect of Platelet Inhibition with Cangrelor during PCI on Ischemic Events (2013) Bhatt, DL etal. New England Journal of Medicine March 10, 2013 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1300815 (published initially online).
  5. The Duel between Dual Antiplatelet Therapies (2013) Lange, RA and Hillis, LD. New England Journal of Medicine March 10, 2013 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe1302504
  6. 15th European Federation for Medicinal Chemistry International Symposium on Medicinal Chemistry (Sept 6 1998, Edinburgh)1998,:Abst P.281
  7.  Specific P2Y12 purinoceptor antagonist; inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Prepn: A. H. Ingall et al., WO 9418216 (1994 to Fisons); eidemUS 5721219 (1998 to Astra); and in vivo antithrombotic activity: idem et al., J. Med. Chem. 42, 213 (1999).
  8. In vivo antithrombotic effects in canine arterial thrombosis: J. Huang et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 295, 492 (2000).
  9. Mechanism of action study: A. Ishii-Watabe et al., Biochem. Pharmacol. 59, 1345 (2000).
  10. Clinical safety assessment and evaluation in acute coronary syndromes: R. F. Storey et al., Thromb. Haemostasis 85, 401 (2001); in angina pectoris and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: F. Jacobsson et al., Clin. Ther. 24, 752 (2002).
  11. Clinical pharmacodynamics compared with clopidogrel: R. F. Storey et al., Platelets 13, 407 (2002).
  12. Review of clinical development: S. C. Chattaraj, Curr. Opin. Invest. Drugs2, 250-255 (2001).
  13. WO2013/103567 A2,
  14. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 1999 ,  vol. 42,  2  p. 213 – 220

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